Some Education Potential In Anime

Manga

The anime has a long cinematic tradition and is closely interwoven with the manga. The manga itself has a long cultural tradition, which goes back to the 6th century and has its origin in the caricature (the so-called "fūshi-e") (cf. Ito 2008, 26). The consideration of the manga, which I will only touch on here, is relevant because the manga is the origin of over 90 percent of the anime (cf. MacWilliams 2008, 6). In view of the history of the manga, Ito states that

“Mangas, or Japanese comics, have traditionally been significant part of Japanese popular culture. However, Japanese comics do not exist in a vacuum; they are closely connected to Japanese history and culture, including such areas as politics, economy, family, religion, and gender ”(Ito 2008, 26). 

In this respect, the manga is also a reference to a long cultural tradition that can also be found in the anime. The modern manga, which is mainly characterized by narrative elements such as speech bubbles and several panels, was established in the early 20th century under the influence of American comics and was initially conceived as a satire (cf. Ito 2008, 32). Regarding the meaning of the manga for the anime, Maureen Furniss notes with a view.
 

Anime

Now that I have briefly presented the historical interdependence between manga and anime, I would like to concentrate on the anime itself in the following. When asked what the anime is, the definitions are short. Basically, the term "anime" refers to animated films that come from Japan. In Japan itself, the term (even more generally) stands for any animation film (cf. Poitras 2008, 48). In order to sharpen the term “anime”, it is worthwhile to briefly reconstruct its history.

Japanese animation film has its roots in the early 20th century. At first it was the “chiyogami-eiga” popular in Japan at the time, a shape that was realized by cut-out figures. It was not until 1929 that there were animated films that were drawn on Cels and influenced primarily by the animated films of Disney (cf. Richie 2005, 252).

In the wake of the escalation of Japanese nationalism and the tensions with the USA, which culminated in the war, the anime became an instrument of Japanese war propaganda until 1945. Finally, at the end of the war in 1945, the first “feature” film “Momotaro umi no shinpei” was made, which represented the preliminary climax in the development of the anime (cf. Poitras 2008, 49).
 
It was not until 1958, with the beginning of the Japanese economic miracle, that the second longer anime film appeared (see Poitras 2008, 50). Subsequently, in the 1960s, manga adaptations such as “Astro Boy” or “Gigantor” led to a differentiation of different genres or basic themes, which for example relate to giant robots (e.g. Gigantor), the boundary between humans and technology (e.g. Astro Boy), magical girls (mahō shōjo), refer to supernatural and historical stories (cf. Poitras 2008, 50f). 
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